Eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is an inflammatory, non-contagious skin condition affecting about 30% of the U.S. population, mainly children and adolescents. It is characterized by chronically dry, itchy skin, and people with this condition may be more susceptible to skin infections.
Causes of Eczema in Children
Eczema is caused by a mixture of genetic and environmental factors which may include exposure to allergens, air pollution, and infections.
The major problem in this disorder is a defect in the skin’s barrier that allows the loss of moisture, the introduction of allergens and later, inflammation.
The defect may be caused by an allergic trigger or a genetic mutation that impairs the skin’s barrier. The cases of atopic dermatitis have risen 2-3-fold in the industrialized nations, and have affected 15-20% of children and 1-3% of adults worldwide.
Food allergy is closely associated with atopic dermatitis. About one-third of children with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis will have food allergies. Common food triggers for eczema may include dairy, egg, peanuts and other nuts, wheat, soy, and fish.
Signs and Symptoms of Eczema in Children
Eczema appears as patches of red or dry skin that is often itchy and rough. It typically comes and goes (flares up). Symptoms of eczema in children usually range from mild to severe and may change from one outbreak to another. Over time, the skin may thicken and this may cause constant itching.
The disease typically affects the face and scalp in babies, and it typically appears in the folds of the knees and arms in older children. Traditional treatments for eczema include aggressive moisturization and topical steroid cream.
Managing Eczema in Children
The first step towards managing atopic dermatitis is to avoid potential triggers. These may include food or environmental allergens. For example, wool has been shown to irritate the skin of children with eczema.
Wearing alternative fabrics such as cotton and silk have shown to reduce itching and assist in absorption of moisturizers.
Natural Treatment Options for Treating Eczema in Children
Here are more details for some home remedies to manage eczema in children.
Moisturizers are essential at any time of the year if your child suffers from eczema, and especially during the winter months when the skin tends to become dry more often.
Get a good quality moisturizer, particularly an ointment rather than a cream, and apply it on your child’s skin to prevent dryness. Look for ointments that do not contain artificial dyes and chemicals.
It is best to apply moisturizers and oils when the skin is still wet after a bath or shower to seal in the moisture.
Natural moisturizers such as coconut oil or sunflower seed oil may also be helpful.
Sunflower Seed Oil
Sunflower oil improves the barrier function of the skin, which in turn prevents skin dryness. Plus, it is safe to use as massage oil for babies.
A 2013 study published in Pediatric Dermatology reports that sunflower seed oil improved hydration of the skin in adults, which may have implications for neonatal skin care.
Coconut oil is another effective remedy for eczema, whether for a child or an adult. It has antifungal, antibacterial, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Coconut oil works as a good moisturizer to help prevent your child’s skin from drying out.
A study published in Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine reports that virgin coconut oil works as an excellent emollient and natural antibacterial agent, in addition to demonstrating anti-inflammatory activity.
- For topical use: Apply coconut oil directly on the affected skin several times a day to get relief from itching. Continue for as many days as needed until the symptoms are completely gone.
- For consumption: Include 1 to 2 tablespoons of extra virgin coconut oil to your child’s diet to help alleviate eczema symptoms and improve overall immunity. You can add it to your child’s food or drinks.
Wet to Dry Wraps
This method involves applying medication or moisturizer to damp skin, then layering with damp gauze and dry gauze. The wraps are left on for several hours or overnight and can help aggressively moisturize the skin and improve itching.
2. Colloidal Oatmeal
Colloidal oatmeal (oats ground into an extremely fine powder) is a good remedy for children suffering from eczema.
It helps soothe and comfort the itchy skin as it contains anti-irritating, anti-inflammatory and soothing properties that provide instant relief.
A 2012 study published in Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology found colloidal oatmeal to be a safe and effective ingredient in personal care products. It has low potential for irritation and allergy.
Another study published in Dermatology Research and Practice in 2012 reports that consistent, frequent and liberal use of emollients like colloidal oatmeal is recommended to maintain the skin barrier function in patients with mild atopic dermatitis, even in the absence of lesions.
- Add 1 cup of colloidal oatmeal to a bathtub filled with lukewarm water. Let your child soak in this water for at least 15 to 20 minutes. Use this remedy 1 or 2 times a day, depending on the severity of the skin condition.
- Alternatively, add a little water to a few tablespoons of colloidal oatmeal and let it sit until it thickens into a paste-like consistency. Apply this mixture on the itchy skin, cover it with a cloth and leave it on for 30 minutes. Use this remedy once daily.
3. Evening Primrose Oil
Studies have shown mixed findings, but some positive effects have been seen on eczema patients with the oral use or topical application of evening primrose oil on affected skin.
Evening primrose oil contains essential fatty acids that are necessary for normal skin barrier and function.
The typical dosage of evening primrose oil when it is used for alleviating eczema is about 200 to 400 mg daily. Effects may be seen in 4 to 8 weeks.
4. Diet (Look for Allergens)
One of the major causes of eczema flare-ups in children is food allergy. If you think your child’s eczema may be caused by a food, then allergy testing may be required. Talk to your doctor more about this.
At times it is slightly difficult to find out which food items might be causing eczema flare-up since it may take several days for symptoms to appear. In this case, you may want to try an elimination diet.
Remove the suspected food from your child’s diet for a few weeks and see if you notice any change in symptoms. If not, you can then re-introduce that food over the course of a few days and again, observe for symptoms. You can remove foods sequentially and monitor for any signs of worsening or improving eczema.
Probiotics are good bacteria that live in your gut that may help improve your child’s immune system and the strength on the skin barrier. Giving your child probiotics may have some effect in treating mild to moderate eczema.
A study published in Epidemiology shows that probiotics may also be beneficial in preventing allergic conditions such as eczema. The benefit can occur if the mother takes them during breastfeeding or if they are given to the child directly.
Give probiotics 1-2 times daily to children affected by eczema to see how it may help.
- Avoid with irritants, as determined by your child’s physician. Common irritants include animal dander, cigarette smoke and chemical sprays.
- Teach your child to practice good skin care techniques.
- Heat and sweat can make eczema worse, so make sure your child does not play out in the sun for long hours. Keep the temperature of your child’s room cool at night to prevent sweating, which can irritate the skin.
- Keep your child’s fingernails cut short, as scratching may contribute to an infection.
- Avoid bubble baths and soaps, as they can irritate and dry out the skin. Choose a mild, fragrance-free cleanser instead.
- To manage dry skin and eczema, make sure your child eats a healthy and nutritious diet.
- Also, keep your child’s body hydrated by reminding him or her to drink water more often.
- Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis). National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. https://www.niaid.nih.gov/diseases-conditions/eczema-atopic-dermatitis. Published September 5, 2018.
- Eczema: How to Help Your Child Avoid the Itch. American Academy of Pediatrics. https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/skin/Pages/Eczema.aspx. Published November 24, 2015
- Mastrorilli C, Caffarelli C, Hoffmann‐Sommergruber K. Food allergy and atopic dermatitis: Prediction, progression, and prevention. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/pai.12831. Published December 21, 2017.
- Avena-Woods C. Overview of atopic dermatitis. American Journal of Managed Care. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28978208/. Published June 2017.
- Bergmann MM, Caubet J-C, Boguniewicz M, Eigenmann PA. Evaluation of Food Allergy in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis. NeuroImage. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213219812000293. Published December 27, 2012.
- Huang A, Cho C, Leung DY, Brar K. Atopic Dermatitis: Early Treatment in Children. Current Treatment Option in Allergy. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29868331. Published September 2017.
- Goddard AL, Lio PA. Alternative, Complementary, and Forgotten Remedies for Atopic Dermatitis. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4518179 . Published July 2015.
- Ricci G, Patrizi A, Bendandi B, Menna G, Varotti E, Masi M. Clinical effectiveness of a silk fabric in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. British Journal of Dermatology. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14746626. Published January 2004.
- Application of moisturizer to neonates prevents development of atopic dermatitis. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091674914011609. Published October 1, 2014.
- Danby SG, AlEnezi T, Sultan A, et al. Effect of olive and sunflower seed oil on the adult skin barrier: implications for neonatal skin care. Pediatric Dermatology. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22995032. Published September 20, 2012.
- Evangelista MTP, Abad‐Casintahan F, Lopez‐Villafuerte L. The effect of topical virgin coconut oil on SCORAD index, transepidermal water loss, and skin capacitance in mild to moderate pediatric atopic dermatitis: a randomized, double‐blind, clinical trial. Freshwater Biology. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/ijd.12339. Published December 10, 2013.
- Criquet M, Roure R, Dayan L, Nollent V, Bertin C. Safety and efficacy of personal care products containing colloidal oatmeal. Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3508548/. Published November 8, 2012.
- Correa MCM, Nebus J. Management of Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: The Role of Emollient Therapy. Dermatology Research and Practice. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3449106. Published September 13, 2012.
- Mattila L, JANSEN CT, Uotila P. Evening primrose oil in the treatment of atopic eczema: effect on clinical status, plasma phospholipid fatty acids and circulating blood prostaglandins. British Journal of Dermatology. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3307886.
- Morse NL, Clough PM. A meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials of Efamol evening primrose oil in atopic eczema. Where do we go from here in light of more recent discoveries? Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17168667. Published December 2006.
- Chung BY, Kim JH, Cho SI, et al. Dose-Dependent Effects of Evening Primrose Oil in Children and Adolescents with Atopic Dermatitis. Annals of Dermatology. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3756191 . Published August 2013.
- Sampson HA, McCaskill CC. ScienceDirect.com | Science, health and medical journals https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022347685803905 . Published November 5, 1985.
- Pelucchi C, Chatenoud L, Turati F, et al. Probiotics supplementation during pregnancy or infancy for the prevention of atopic dermatitis: a meta-analysis. Epidemiology. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22441545. Published May 2012.